Stem Cell Sources

Of all stem cell sources, bone marrow-derived stem cells are the best characterized (Frisbie, Smith 2010). Side-by-side laboratory comparisons of bone marrow versus adipose as a source for stem cells has shown bone marrow to be superior (Kisiday et al, 2008). In vivo studies have confirmed the ability of these cells to localize and participate in the repair of damaged joint tissues including menisci (Murphy et al 2003Izuta et al 2005Yamasaki et al 2005) cruciate ligaments and cartilage lesions (Agung et al 2006) as well as for ligament/tendon disease (Fortier, Smith 2008).